How do vaccinations protect us from COVID-19?

Wednesday, November 10, 2021

How COVID-19 vaccinations work

  • Vaccinations train the body’s immune system to recognize and eliminate the COVID-19 virus.
  • Vaccinations are a safe way for the body to gain immunity without getting COVID-19.
  • There are many different types of vaccines, but with all vaccines, the body’s immune cells eventually recognize and react to some part of the protein that makes up the virus, producing antibodies, some of which remain memory cells.
  • It is then activated when the COVID-19 virus invades the human body and eliminates the virus or virus-infected cells.
  • By this mechanism, COVID-19 vaccinations reduce the risk of contracting COVID-19 and prevent serious illness or death.
  • It usually takes 2 weeks or more to acquire immunity after vaccination. Therefore, if vaccinated persons are exposed to the COVID-19 virus immediately after vaccinations, they can become infected with COVID-19.
  • After vaccination, fever, fatigue, headache, muscle pain, nausea and vomiting may occur during immune formation, but these are normal reactions. In most cases, symptoms disappear within 3 days.

Types of COVID-19 Vaccines

  • Currently, several types of vaccines have been developed or are under development worldwide.
  • Most COVID-19 vaccines use the coronavirus’ “spike” protein to trigger an immune response.
  • The body’s immune system recognizes the coronavirus’s spike protein as a foreign substance, producing long-lasting immune cells and antibodies.
  • When the body is exposed to coronavirus after it has completed vaccinations and immunity has been built up, the immune system responds faster and better, protecting against COVID-19.
  • There are three main types of COVID-19 vaccines that have been developed or will be developed soon.

mRNA vaccine (Nucleic acid vaccine)

  • mRNA vaccine is a vaccine administered by making a gene that makes a coronavirus-specific spike protein in the form of RNA.
  • The mRNA injected into the body causes the cell to make a coronavirus-specific spike protein.
  • The human body recognizes the produced spike protein as a foreign substance, triggers an immune response, and acquires immunity against the COVID-19 virus.
  • The genetic material of the injected mRNA vaccine is broken down, so it does not interact with the body’s DNA.

Recombinant vaccine

  • Recombinant vaccines contain harmless protein antigens (mainly spike proteins) from the COVID-19 virus.
  • When vaccinated, the body’s immune system recognizes the protein antigen as foreign, triggers an immune response, and acquires immunity against the COVID-19 virus.

Virus vector vaccine

  • Viral vector vaccines are made from a virus that contains the genetic material of the COVID-19 virus-specific protein (mainly the spike protein).
  • The virus used at this time is a different virus from the COVID-19 virus, and it is harmless to the human body because it uses an attenuated virus.
  • When a vector virus containing the genetic material of the COVID-19 virus-specific protein enters the human body, the body produces a spike protein, a COVID-19 virus-specific protein.
  • The human body recognizes the produced spike protein as a foreign substance, triggers an immune response, and acquires immunity against the COVID-19 virus.

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