Exercise and physical activity are great for your health. Physical activity means all the movements of your body that are caused by muscle contractions and make up a large part of your energy consumption. Examples include daily activities such as walking, climbing stairs and doing housework. Exercise is also part of physical activity. While people know that exercise is important for their health, they don’t actually have enough exercise and physical activity.
Exercise and physical activity can reduce mortality and prevent cardiovascular disease. It can also help reduce cancer and prevent dementia, including breast, colon, uterine, lung and stomach cancers. Adults are advised to do moderate intensity exercises between 150 minutes (2 hours 30 minutes) and 300 minutes (5 hours) per week or vigorous high intensity exercises from 75 minutes (1 hour 15 minutes) to 150 minutes (2 hours 30 minutes) per week. good. Moderate exercises are exercises that you can do with a short breath, such as walking fast or riding a bicycle. High-intensity workouts include running, football, and breathing. It is also a good idea to do strength training at least two days a week. Examples of strength exercises include weight-bearing exercises such as sit-ups, push-ups, and staircases, as well as equipment exercises that use dumbbells or elastic bands.
General Discussion: Exercise Guidelines by Age
- Children and adolescents who are growing up should be physically fit for their age, and regular exercise can help them be healthy.
- Exercise in adults reduces the risk of chronic disease, cancer and various mental illnesses.
- The elderly may differ in the type, frequency, intensity, and frequency of exercise depending on their health.
- Pregnant women can also benefit from regular exercise during pregnancy and after childbirth.
1. The Exercise of Children and Youth
It is important for preschool children (3 to 5 years old) to have active habits for growth and development, and caring adults should encourage preschoolers to engage in a variety of physical activities. For adolescents, it is important to suggest appropriate physical activities and to encourage them to participate in fun and diverse physical activities.
1) Exercise method
It is important to give opportunities and encouragement to participate in a variety of physical activities that you can enjoy with your age. Children and adolescents 6-17 years of age should have at least 60 minutes of moderate physical activity each day.
(1) Aerobic exercise: 60 minutes of moderate or more physical activity, and more than 3 days a week of intense physical activity should be.
(2) Strength training: As part of a daily exercise of 60 minutes or more, at least three times a week should include strength training.
(3) Bone strengthening exercises: As part of a daily exercise of 60 minutes or more, at least three times a week should include bone strengthening exercises.
2) Awareness intensity and activity example according to aerobic physical activity intensity of children and adolescents
Awareness intensity refers to the psychological or physical burden that you incur depending on the amount of physical activity or effort you perform. Awareness intensity at rest means 1, the maximum ability you can perform or the highest intensity you can afford is 10. Moderate exercise (5-6) is a slight shortness of breath, high intensity exercise (7-8) is a very short breath.
3) Health benefits associated with regular physical activity
Children and adolescents who are growing up can benefit from a variety of health benefits through steady exercise. It has been shown to improve bone and weight, further growth, improve cardiopulmonary function, cardiac metabolism and muscle health, improve cognitive function and reduce the risk of depression.
2. Exercise of Adults
It offers a range of benefits, from the short-term benefits of one physical activity to long-term benefits, such as reducing the risk of developing chronic disease or progression.
1) Exercise method
Adults need to move and be more active. It is better to be physically active than to be still, and moderate to moderate physical activity brings health benefits.
(1) To gain health benefits, you must do a high-intensity exercise at least 150-300 minutes per week or 75-150 minutes per week with moderate or higher intensity, or aerobic physical activity combined with moderate and high intensity exercise.
(2) You can get more health benefits by exercising more than 300 minutes per week, comparable to moderate physical activity.
(3) Adults should exercise at least moderate strength exercises involving all large muscles at least twice a week, which also brings more health benefits.
2) Health benefits associated with regular physical activity
Regular physical activity helps a variety of adults’ health. Not only does it improve bone and body function, it also reduces the risk of death of all causes, and reduces the risk of hypertension, diabetes and dyslipidemia. It has been shown to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease, including heart disease and stroke, and the associated risk of death.
Reduces the risk of various cancers (bladder cancer, breast cancer, colon cancer, endometrial cancer, esophageal cancer, kidney cancer, lung cancer, stomach cancer), improves cognitive function and sleep, and reduces the risk of dementia, including Alzheimer’s disease. Reduces the risk of anxiety and depression and improves overall quality of life.
3. Exercise of the Elderly
1) Exercise method
(1) The intensity of the exercise should be controlled while minimizing the risk of an accident.
(2) Use your arms and legs a lot without fatigue.
(3) Consider the needs of the elderly, their health, their equipment and facilities, their preferences and the amount of time they can exercise.
(4) You should be able to choose an exercise that does not stress the joints and active muscles, and to exercise at an intensity that can last an hour.
(5) Do a light exercise and clean up before and after exercise (light walking, stretching).
2) Exercise prescription in the elderly
(1) Important guidelines for adults also apply to older people. In addition to the Adult Exercise Guidelines, you should consider the following:
(2) In addition to abortion and strength training, comprehensive physical activities including balance training are required.
(3) The level of physical activity should be determined according to the individual’s exercise level.
(4) If you have an elderly person with chronic disease, you should choose whether or not to exercise by considering your condition to make sure that you can safely perform regular physical activities.
(5) If you cannot do more than 150 minutes of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise for a week due to chronic disease, you must do physical activity as your physical condition and ability allow.
4) Health benefits associated with regular physical activity
The more physical activity you have, the better your physical function and the easier your daily life will be. For older people, regular physical activity can reduce the risk of falls and the risk of injury associated with falls, as well as the health benefits of adults.
4. Exercise of Pregnant Women
1) Health status evaluation and contraindications before exercise
(1) Absolute contraindications: In the following cases, you should limit your exercise and discuss your medical condition with your doctor.
- Severe heart disease
- Lung disease with limited lung volume
- Cervical inability
- Multiple pregnancies with the risk of preterm birth
- Persistent bleeding during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy
- Placental placenta after 26 weeks of gestation
- Early analgesia
- Gestational hypertension or pregnancy addiction
(2) Relative contraindications: If you have any of the following, you should consult your doctor and exercise specialist to determine the appropriate exercise method.
- Severe anemia of less than 10 hemoglobin
- Uncontrolled arrhythmia
- Chronic bronchitis, uncontrolled type 1 diabetes
- Morbidly high obesity
- Severe underweight with a body mass index of less than 12
- Almost immobile lifestyle
- Fetus in the womb Uncontrolled hypertension
- Orthopedic problems with limited exercise
- Poorly controlled epilepsy
- Poorly regulated thyroidism
- Severe smokers
2) How to exercise
(1) Aerobic exercise: Aerobic exercise can improve the cardiopulmonary function of pregnant women and prevent excessive weight gain. Exercises that use large muscles, such as walking or swimming, are good, and if you have exercised steadily before pregnancy, do 5 or more exercises a week for 15-30 minutes a day. If you do not have enough exercise before pregnancy, it is recommended to increase by 5 minutes a week until reaching 30 minutes a day, and 3 to 5 times a week is recommended. We aim to exercise at moderate intensity more than 150 minutes a week.
(2) strength exercises: prevent back pain and strengthen the muscles used in labor can help to withstand pain. It is advisable to combine proper strength exercises with your child since it will help you recover to your pre-pregnancy fitness. It’s a good idea to repeat the motion several times with lower weight and start with the big muscles, such as your thighs, chest, and more. Beginning in the middle of pregnancy, it is recommended to avoid lying lying flat.
3) Good exercise for pregnant women and exercise to avoid
(1) Good exercise: walking strengthens cardiopulmonary function and helps to maintain proper weight by controlling the rapid weight change caused by pregnancy. Walking exercises can also help keep your baby nutrients and oxygenated, as they help improve blood flow. A stationary bicycle is an aerobic exercise that can improve the cardiopulmonary ability and physical strength of pregnant women, which can reduce the burden on the joints because the weight is not transferred to the lower body. Exercise in the water gives comfort to the fetus and the mother because buoyancy prevents stress on the lower back or knee joints and no body parts are pressed. Exercises like yoga or Pilates can help you relax by lowering muscle fatigue and strengthening the muscles of your uterus or pelvis to help deliver. It can help you relax, change your mood, and help you breathe at birth.
(2) Exercises to avoid: Exercises that are unbalanced or prone to falling (skiing, horseback riding, gymnastics, outdoor cycling, etc.), sports with physical contact (hockey, kickboxing, judo, basketball, exit, etc.), racquet sports (squash, Tennis, etc.) is recommended. You should also avoid high-altitude exercises, scuba diving that can cause decompression in your unborn child, and exercise or hold your breath in a hot and humid environment. Fasting or excessive exercise can also cause hypoglycemia.
Recent Issues: High Intensity Intermittent Exercise
High-intensity intermittent training (HIIT) is a combination of low intensity exercise or rest between high intensity exercises.
High-intensity intermittent exercise is an exercise that maximizes energy consumption, provides sufficient motivation, and allows for a variety of exercise combinations. However, the high intensity of exercise requires careful attention before and after exercise.
1. What is High Intensity Intermittent Exercise?
Along with intermittent fasting, high intensity intermittent movement has become a hot topic. High-intensity intermittent training (HIIT) is a combination of low intensity exercise or rest between high intensity exercises. It is becoming a hot topic with the growing interest in exercise methods that consume a lot of energy in a short time and achieve the maximum exercise effect.
Low and medium intensity aerobic exercise can be easily done in daily life, which is effective for weight loss by consuming fat and maintaining or increasing fat mass. The higher the intensity, the more energy consumed after the exercise, and the more fat you can expect to lose weight.
In particular, the amount of oxygen consumed during exercise increases in proportion to exercise intensity. After a high intensity workout, our body uses additional oxygen to return to a stable level. This excess amount of oxygen is called excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC). Since excess oxygen consumption was recognized as a concept of consuming energy even after exercise, it became interested as a concept for weight control. Excess oxygen consumption is greatly affected by exercise intensity and exercise time, but it is known to consume more energy (6 to 15%) during this time.
Various methods for ‘high intensity intermittent exercise’ are being developed in proportion to the interest in the total amount of energy used and the excess oxygen consumption after the exercise. Typical exercises include intermittent, crossfit, and tabata exercises. The American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) recommends exercising at 80-95% of your maximum heart rate for high-intensity intermittent exercise training, with 5 to 8 minutes of exercise time. . Rest periods or low-intensity workouts should be done during the same period of time as high-intensity workouts, and are recommended to be maintained at 40-50% of your maximum heart rate. Exercise methods can be configured in various ways, and the typical exercise methods are shown in the table.
2. Advantages and Precautions of High Intensity Intermittent Exercise
As the interest in high-intensity intermittent exercise increases, many studies on the effects of exercise are ongoing. According to a recent presentation by the American Academy of Sports Medicine, high intensity intermittent exercise can reduce the proportion of abdominal and visceral fat while maintaining muscle mass, improve blood lipid status and improve insulin sensitivity, making glucose easier to use as an energy source. It helps. It also helps improve high blood pressure and improve cardiovascular health.
However, people with low physical activity usually need to be careful because sudden high intensity intermittent exercise may increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. If you have a family history of cardiovascular and cardiovascular disease, smoking, high blood pressure, diabetes, dyslipidemia, and obesity, you may need to consult a doctor before starting exercise. In addition, to reduce the risk of damage to the musculoskeletal system, proper warm-up exercises should be made, and strength should be increased to increase basic fitness. It is important to determine the intensity of your exercise, taking into account the age, gender, and level of physical activity of the individual doing it, and focus on finding the optimal training intensity for the individual, not the enduring goal.
High intensity intermittent exercise is an exercise method that maximizes energy consumption beyond the classic medium intensity aerobic exercise. You can get enough motivation and a variety of exercise combinations. It’s also effective for weight control, and it’s a great way to spend time reasonably. However, the high intensity of exercise requires careful attention before and after exercise.
- Before exercise, if you suspect a health risk, consult a specialist to determine the appropriate amount of exercise.
- Physical activity can be divided into aerobic exercise, strength training, bone strengthening, balance exercise, and multiple physical activities.
- In addition to this exercise, warm up and warm up will be performed together.
- To improve cardiopulmonary function, it is conducted for 2 to 6 days a week for 30 to 60 minutes and increases the frequency and time step by step.
- Evenly develop the muscles of the whole body in the correct position according to the individual’s ability to exercise.
- Excessive strength and aerobic exercise can cause a variety of side effects, so you should consider your ability to exercise.
Pre-exercise risk testing: PAR-Q
The pre-workout risk test can be briefly completed through a questionnaire, and if you answer yes to any question, a professional assessment will help you determine the type and amount of exercise that is appropriate for your physical condition before you start your workout.
Physical Activity Readiness Questionnaire (PAR-Q)
- Has your doctor ever said that you have a heart condition and that you should only perform physical activity recommended by a doctor?
- Do you feel pain in your chest when you perform physical activity?
- In the past month, have you had chest pain when you were not performing any physical activity?
- Do you lose your balance because of dizziness or do you ever lose consciousness?
- Do you have a bone or joint problem that could be made worse by a change in your physical activity?
- Is your doctor currently prescribing any medication for your blood pressure or for a heart condition?
- Do you know of any other reason why you should not engage in physical activity?
If you have answered “Yes” to one or more of the above questions, consult your physician before engaging in physical activity. Tell your physician which questions you answered “Yes” to. After a medical evaluation, seek advice from your physician on what type of activity is suitable for your current condition.
2. Types and Intensities
(1) Aerobic exercise: Also called endurance exercise or cardio exercise, large muscles move in a rhythmic way over a period of time. Aerobic exercise increases your heart rate and makes you breathe faster.
Aerobic exercise consists of three components: intensity, frequency, and duration. Intensity is expressed as moderate (like fast walking) and high intensity (such as running or jogging), and how often you do aerobic exercise. Period represents the time you exercise during one period.
(2) Strength strengthening exercise: Lifting weight with muscle strengthening activities including resistance exercise will give strength to the muscles of the body to move. He or she can lift heavy objects several times to strengthen different muscles and use elastic bands or weights to create resistance.
Strength training consists of three components: strength, frequency, sets, and repetition. Strength is used in relation to how much weight can be lifted and represents the amount of weight or force. How often you do strength training is by frequency, and sets and repetitions are the number of times you do strength training.
(3) Bone Strengthening Exercise: Also called weight bearing, it is an activity that promotes bone growth and strengthening. In general, aerobics, rope skipping, and running are the forces generated by collisions with the ground.
(4) Balanced Exercises: Exercises designed to improve your ability to resist the force to fall while a person is stationary or moving. Strengthening the muscles of the back, abdomen, and legs also improves balance, and exercises such as lunges and walking backwards are balanced.
(5) Multiple Physical Activity: A physical activity that includes one or more aerobic, strength building, and balance exercises. Recreation, such as dancing, yoga, gardening, or sports, is a multi-physical activity that involves many types of physical activity.
(1) Absolute Exercise Intensity: The amount of energy consumed during an activity without considering the individual’s cardiopulmonary or aerobic capacity. Absolute exercise intensity is usually expressed as MET (metabolic equivalent). 1MET is equal to your metabolic rate and energy consumption when you sit quietly while you are awake. Moderate activity has a value of 3 to 5.9 MET, and high intensity activity has a MET value of 6 or more. Slow physical activity at 3 km / h or doing light household work is good for your health, and changing your sitting behavior to light intensity is good for your health.
(2) Relative exercise intensity: indicates the level required to perform the activity and is expressed in consideration of the individual’s cardiopulmonary function. Relative strengths are scaled from 0 to 10, with moderate strengths of 5-6 and high intensity activities of 7-8.
3. How to Exercise
Exercises consist of warm-up exercises (5-10 minutes), main exercises (20-60 minutes), and grooming exercises (5-10 minutes). In the warm-up phase, the increase in the temperature of the muscles increases blood flow to the muscles to be exercised, which prevents injury to the heart and the musculoskeletal system during exercise. This exercise phase includes flexibility exercises, aerobic exercises, resistance exercises, and combined / circuit exercises. The final cleanup phase reduces muscle pain after exercise and prevents fatigue due to the reduction of fatigue material (lactic acid concentration).
1) Warm up
(1) Basic guidelines for warm-up exercises: You should perform at least 15-20 minutes over the entire range of joint movement. The exercise is conducted at a lower exercise intensity than the exercise and the warm-up exercise is performed considering the characteristics of the exercise.
2) Main exercise
It corresponds to the purpose of the exercise program, and select the exercise according to the purpose.
(1) aerobic exercise
Beginning three times a week, starting at 20 minutes per session, the frequency and time increase gradually depending on the purpose of the exercise. The exercise load is gradually increased according to the individual’s response to the exercise, and usually 10-30% of exercise per week for 30 to 60 minutes per week.
Subjective awareness is between RPE 4 and 5, and avoiding long periods of intense aerobic exercise as much as possible. RPE is Ratings of Perceived Exertion (RPE), designed by Borg (1982), which is based on the heart rate range of 60 bpm to 200 bpm.
(2) strength training
You need to develop the muscles of your whole body in the right position. The intensity is 8 ~ 12RM. It’s best to do some large muscle workouts first, then do small muscle workouts, and avoid running the same muscles in sequence. For safety, do a pyramid set, do easy exercise after a difficult exercise, and do simple joint exercise after a multi-joint exercise (for example, a dumbbell fly using one joint after a bench press exercise with two or more joints). The development of muscles requires rest and nourishment, so there is plenty of rest and nutrition between exercises.
3) Clearance exercise
Basic Guidelines for Organizing Exercise: Considering the characteristics of the exercise, the exercise should be conducted for at least 10 to 15 minutes, and mainly for exercise such as walking, light jogging, and stretching. Keep track of your heart rate to see how much you are recovering.
4. Guidelines for Safe Exercise
To keep your physical activity safe and reduce the risk and side effects of injury, you should be aware of the following:
- Understand the dangers of exercise and do exercises that can be safe for almost everyone.
- Choose an exercise that suits your current exercise level and health goals.
- Gradually increase exercise intensity to meet your guidelines or health goals. People with less activity usually start with lower intensity and gradually increase their frequency and intensity.
- Protect yourself by using proper exercise equipment and choosing when, where and how to exercise according to the rules in a safe environment.
- Get medical help if you have chronic disease or symptoms. You can get information about the right type of workout or amount of exercise.
Target specific information
- In hypertensive patients, exercise therapy lowers blood pressure and prevents obesity and arteriosclerosis, a risk factor for hypertension.
- Exercise therapy in diabetic patients plays an important role in blood sugar control by reducing weight and insulin resistance. Exercise itself reduces glycated hemoglobin, regardless of weight loss.
- In patients with dyslipidemia, the purpose of controlling lipid metabolism is to prevent cardiovascular disease, so exercise therapy is important.
- In osteoporosis patients, exercise therapy has the effect of strengthening muscle strength and improving balance, and can increase bone density and reduce the risk of falling with continuous exercise.
1. Exercise for Hypertensive Patients
1) Need for exercise
Aerobic exercise is recommended at least 5 times a week and 30 minutes at a time to lower blood pressure. Such regular exercise can reduce systolic blood pressure by 5 mm Hg on average and diastolic blood pressure by 4 mm Hg on average. In addition, it can be expected to have an additional effect of preventing obesity, arteriosclerosis, and other risk factors for high blood pressure.
2) Exercise therapy for hypertensive patients
(1) We recommend a program that combines aerobic exercise with resistance exercise. Basically, you should do aerobic exercises such as breaking (fast walking), jogging, biking, swimming, jumping rope, and aerobic gymnastics, and repeat your resistance exercise several times with light weight. Recommend resistance exercises using strength equipment such as dumbbells two or three times a week.
(2) It is recommended to exercise low or medium intensity, not high intensity exercise, and adjust exercise intensity according to individual’s condition. Exercise intensity should be about 60 to 80% or less of your maximum heart rate (220-age). When you first start, 10 to 20 minutes to slowly extend to 30 to 60 minutes, weekly 90 to 150 minutes or more exercise is recommended. It’s a good idea to do warm-ups and finishes at least five minutes before and after your workout.
Most people with high blood pressure who do not have complications can safely increase their exercise rate without prior examination. However, use caution in the following situations:
(1) Patients 65 years of age or older who have never had a history of heart disease, chest pain, dizziness, or severe exercise, or whose blood pressure is not controlled, should consult a specialist before starting exercise.
(2) Exercise is prohibited if systolic blood pressure > 200 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure > 115 mmHg.
(3) For people with blood pressure above 180 / 110mmHg, add resistance exercise after starting medication.
2. Exercise for Diabetics
1) Need for exercise
(1) Exercise therapy in diabetics decreases weight and insulin resistance and plays an important role in blood sugar control.
(2) Exercise itself reduces glycated hemoglobin, regardless of weight loss. High intensity exercise is more effective in improving glycated hemoglobin, while aerobic exercise and resistance exercise have additional effects in terms of blood sugar control.
(3) Recently, the total amount of medium-high intensity exercise is related to health promotion rather than exercise time. In addition, physical activity that increases movement in your life may have the effect of exercise.
2) Exercise therapy for diabetics
(1) mode of exercise of diabetics
Aerobic exercise should be easy to control, maintain a constant rhythm, and exercise using whole body muscles is recommended (e.g. walking, jogging, gymnastics, biking, stairs, swimming, etc.). Stepping up and down is not appropriate for people who are just starting to exercise or who have complications of diabetes, which can lead to a sharp increase in heart rate and blood pressure, and should be avoided if you have a knee joint disorder. Cycling puts less strain on the musculoskeletal system than jogging, and low-intensity exercise is suitable for people with diabetic retinopathy. Exercise should be at least three days a week and no more than two days off in a row.
(2) the intensity of the movement
It’s a good idea to do moderate aerobic exercise (50-70% of your maximum heart rate, maximum heart rate = 220–age) for at least 150 minutes a week or high-intensity (70% or more of your maximum heart rate) at least 75 minutes a week. Exercise should be at least three days a week and do not rest for more than two days in a row. A moderate level of resistance exercise is also required to control blood sugar and improve insulin sensitivity. Based on the intensity that can be repeated 10 to 15 times per set, the number of repetitions is gradually increased to 15 to 20 depending on the level of individual exercise. Unless there are contraindications, we recommend that you do more than twice a week. Three sets of eight to ten reps are recommended at 75-85% strength for maximum strength (the largest weight at a time). Exercises using dumbbells, health bands, etc.
(1) When exercising at intensity beyond walking speed, it is advisable to evaluate the risk of cardiovascular disease, severe hypertension, and complications of diabetes before taking exercise, taking into account the age of the patient and the previous level of physical activity.
(2) When using insulin secretagogues or insulin, exercise may cause hypoglycemia. Therefore, in order to know the changes in blood sugar during exercise, blood sugar should be measured before and after exercise. Carbohydrates should be taken if your blood sugar is below 100 mg / dL before exercise.
(3) If you have severe diabetic retinopathy, high risk of retinal hemorrhage or retinal detachment is recommended.
(4) Decreased pain in the upper or lower extremities increases the risk of skin ulcers and infections. Therefore, if you have severe neuropathy, exercise that does not require weight load, such as swimming, biking, and arm exercise, is desirable.
3. Exercise in Patients for Dyslipidemia
1) Need for exercise
(1) In patients with dyslipidemia, exercise generally lowers triglycerides, lowers total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol, and increases HDL cholesterol. However, there are some studies that exercise is not positive for cholesterol. This is because not only the sex, age, race, and lipid concentration of the subject, but also the type, amount, intensity, duration, frequency, and type of exercise, as well as the lifestyle and weight changes, the exercise has a variety of results. This is because the effect on is not large.
(2) Exercise is an important non-medical treatment guideline for the prevention of cardiovascular disease. Exercise can reduce cardiovascular disease risk, reduce cardiovascular disease mortality and overall mortality by improving lipids, improving blood pressure, improving insulin sensitivity, improving inflammatory markers, reducing body fat, enhancing cardiopulmonary capacity, and improving myocardial function. . Therefore, it can be said that exercise therapy prevents cardiovascular disease, and exercise therapy is also important in patients with lipid metabolism, since the goal of the regulation of lipid metabolism is to prevent cardiovascular disease.
2) Exercise therapy for patients with dyslipidemia
(1) For aerobic exercise, we recommend exercise such as breaking, jogging, swimming, biking which usually lasts more than 30 minutes. The effect on the lipids of resistance movements is controversial. However, this can be useful because it can increase activity by improving insulin resistance, increasing muscle mass and strengthening muscle strength, especially in older people, which can improve their daily performance. It is an exercise that uses muscle strength to counter weight or resistance, uses weight as resistance, or uses elastic tools or exercise equipment to choose weight.
(2) There is no special exercise prescription for controlling dyslipidemia, and it is generally the same as the method for preventing cardiovascular disease. In general, we recommend aerobic exercise at least 30 minutes five times a week for moderate intensity or 20 minutes three times a week for high intensity.
(3) Exercise time is about 10 minutes of warm-up (5 minutes light stretching, 5 minutes light walking), 30-60 minutes when treadmill to enter the main exercise, 50-60 if exercise including weight loss You must keep minutes. At this time, if it is difficult to fill the exercise time at once, divide the exercise several times at least 10 minutes and take a rest while walking lightly for 2-3 minutes in the middle. Exercise types are primarily recommended for cardio, such as walking, power walking, and cycling.
If you have a high risk of cardiovascular disease, or if you have cardiovascular disease, it is recommended to set the correct intensity through exercise load test, but if you do not have an exercise load test, start with the feeling of “normal” and feel “a little hard”. There is a way to keep exercising. However, we recommend that you have a medical judgment before you start exercising.
4. Exercise in Osteoporosis Patients
1) Need for exercise
In people with osteoporosis, exercise has the effect of strengthening muscle strength and improving balance, which can increase physical activity and improve quality of life. There is a lack of evidence that exercise can prevent fractures directly, but studies have shown that continuous exercise can increase bone density and reduce the risk of falls.
2) Exercise therapy for osteoporosis patients
(1) Exercises that need to be combined with aerobic exercise, such as walking, to help prevent fractures can be divided into resistance exercise for strengthening strength and core stability exercise for strengthening balance.
(2) Excessive resistance exercise can cause muscle damage, and light dumbbell lifting, push-ups and knee flexing can be good strength exercises. Continuous exercise is important for the effect of exercise. Resistance training for 10 to 18 weeks will increase your muscle strength by 20%, but if you do not exercise for 12 weeks, you will lose about 70% of the gained strength. Exercise intensity and exercise volume should take into account the age and ability of the individual, and examples of aerobic exercise, such as resistance and walking, for women in their 60s who do not have osteoporotic fractures.
(3) Exercises basically consist of warm-up, resistance, aerobic and cleanup exercises.
- Warm-up: To increase the heart rate to minimize the damage to the joints and muscles to provide the blood for the exercise, stretching or walking.
- Resistance exercise: Exercise to improve muscle strength by using equipment or bare hand exercise, and it is better not to increase exercise load too much. Strength training is repeated 8 to 12 times to exercise once, take a break for 1 to 2 minutes, and then repeat 8 to 12 times.
- Aerobic exercise: Bike riding, fast walking, jogging and other exercises, such as slow walking as a warm-up exercise to relax muscle tension by stretching and other exercises. Although there is no composition ratio of the amount of exercise, the ratio of 10 minutes (20%) of warm-up, 20 minutes (40%) of resistance exercise, 15 minutes (30%) of aerobic exercise, and 5 minutes (10%) of aerobic exercise are 50 minutes. You can do it. Extensive exercise is recommended for spinal exercises, including pectoral muscle stretching, back stretching, abdominal and back muscle strengthening exercises, and cat stretching exercises.
In osteoporosis patients, it is necessary to consult a specialist before starting exercise. In planning an exercise program, a medical examination involving risk factors must be preceded and a physical examination can be considered if necessary. Severe osteoporosis patients should avoid exercises that impact the knees or lower back joints, such as jumping or jumping rope, and avoiding strenuous or weight lifting exercises that can cause compression fractures in the spine.
Frequently Asked Questions
- Because the benefits of aerobic exercise and strength exercise are different for us, it is better to combine them.
- Fat is not burned by parts, so even if you exercise abs, your body fat will be less effective.
- Since the characteristics of aerobic exercise and strength exercise are different, it is necessary to combine whole body strength exercise and aerobic exercise for balanced body shape and health.
1. Should I Do Aerobic or Strength Training?
Because aerobic exercise and strength exercise have different benefits for us, it is better to combine them.
Aerobic exercise burns body fat, and strength training (resistance training) is known to increase strength, muscle endurance, and quickness, increase muscle mass, and increase bone density. Because of these differences in the benefits that these two sports have for us, physical exercise can improve our health and improve our health if we do a combination of exercises without biasing them.
2. Can I lose Body Fat If I Do Abs Exercises?
Fat is not burned for each part, so even if you exercise abs, your body fat will be less effective.
Abs exercise will burn calories, so you will lose some fat, but the effect is minimal. It’s good to understand that fat doesn’t burn in parts. Aerobic exercise using the large muscles of the whole body is more effective to remove body fat.
3. If I’ve been doing strength training for the upper body and jogging with aerobic exercise, do I need to do lower body strength training separately?
Because the characteristics of aerobic exercise and strength exercise are different, it is necessary to combine whole body strength exercise and aerobic exercise for balanced body shape and health.
Because strength and aerobic exercise have different movement characteristics, the upper body eventually develops muscle strength and hypertrophy, but the lower body does not. The upper body has a lot of muscle mass, but if the lower body has less muscle mass, the knee may be overwhelmed by the imbalance of upper and lower body during strength training. For a balanced body shape and health, it is good to consider the strength exercise of the upper and lower body evenly, and the aerobic exercise is performed to remove the body fat and the health of the heart, blood vessels and lungs.
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