1. How to prevent diabetes complications?
If the high blood sugar level persists, acute and chronic complications from diabetes can occur. Therefore, thorough blood sugar management is very important to prevent complications. Maintaining a regular lifestyle while using diet, exercise, and medication to keep blood sugar within the normal range is the most important way to prevent complications. In addition, the patient must maintain adequate weight, blood pressure, and blood cholesterol levels. In addition, regular examinations are recommended to determine whether complications are occurring or not.
Famous studies on the prevention of diabetes complications include The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) and the UK Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS). The results associated with the prevention of complications in these studies are:
First, the DCCT study observed patients with type 1 diabetes who intensively adjusted their blood sugar levels and lowered the average glycated hemoglobin to 7%, and maintained general treatment for patients with an average of 9% glycated hemoglobin over 6.5 years. . In patients with intensive blood sugar control, diabetes retinopathy decreased by 54%, microproteinuria by 39%, proteinuria by 54%, and diabetic neuropathy by 60%.
Second, the UKPDS study targeted 3,867 patients who were initially diagnosed with type 2 diabetes and intensively controlled their blood sugar, resulting in 7% of average glycated hemoglobin and 7.9% of glycated hemoglobin by maintaining general treatment. I have researched them for over 10 years. Microvascular complications were reduced by 25% in patients with low glycated hemoglobin. As a result of the post-analysis, microvascular complications decreased by 37% as glycated hemoglobin decreased by 1%.
Results have recently been reported after the UKPDS study. Patients who participated in the UKPDS study were examined for 10 years afterwards, and 9% of all complications related to diabetes, 24% of microvascular complications, and death associated with diabetes were observed in patients who had intensive blood sugar control at the beginning of diagnosis. 17%, myocardial infarction 15%, and death from all causes decreased by 13%. In particular, the reduction of myocardial infarction and death from all causes did not appear in the initial study of UKPDS, but rather had significant results 10 years after the study ended. In other words, macrovascular complications are diagnosed as diabetes and appear after a long time. The benefits of thorough glycemic control in the early stages persist 10 years after the end of the study, indicating that it can have a beneficial effect of reducing cardiovascular complications.
2. What are some things that diabetics should be aware of?
The most basic and important part of diabetes management is diet and exercise. In the case of type 2 diabetes, more than half of them are overweight, so dietary therapy and exercise therapy are essential for losing weight. Therefore, if the blood sugar is controlled normally through these lifestyle changes, it is often thought that diabetes is cured, and the weight is increased due to neglected management or excessive calorie intake, resulting in weight gain. Don’t forget that diabetes is a lifelong condition and needs care, and keep living regularly and have fun with the idea of “diabetes is my friend”. In addition, when a diabetic patient smokes, it can cause heart attack, miscarriage, stillbirth, etc. by blocking oxygen to the whole body, increase cholesterol, increase nerve and kidney complications, and damage the peripheral nerves. You should quit smoking because it can cause blood sugar and blood pressure.
3. What do patients with diabetes medication need to know?
Even if you take oral medication or insulin injections as medication, you should combine diet and exercise therapy. Hypoglycemia may occur in cases of insufficient food, skipped meals, or overdose, so please check and take the time and dose when taking the drug. If you forget to take the medicine, you can take it immediately when you think about it, but if it is too long, it is better to skip it. When hypoglycemia occurs, self-glycemic measurement should be taken and low-glycemic emergency food should be taken. After hypoglycemia is recovered, the cause of hypoglycemia should be considered and prevented.
Some medications may contain components that raise or lower blood sugar by interacting with insulin, so be sure to consult your doctor before taking medication. In addition, you must tell your doctor that you have diabetes when you go to the hospital.
Some dietary supplements are false advertising that some diabetes is cured, so make sure you don’t count on taking ads.
4. What do patients need to know for self-care?
It is not a cure for diabetes, it is a disease that requires lifelong control. Healthy people also exercise regularly and avoid alcohol and cigarettes. Diabetics can also live healthily if they follow the basic rules of life.
The following are the basic rules of life recommended for diabetics.
- Regularly eat the right amount of food.
- Exercise regularly for an hour each day.
- Study hard on diabetes.
- Take regular blood glucose measurements.
- Visit the hospital regularly.
- No smoking.
- Avoid drinking. When you drink alcohol, your blood sugar rises.
- Keep your feet clean and healthy.
- Have a positive mind.
- Follow proven treatment methods.